Temporary Lighting

1. Q. What is a temporary light?

A. Unlike permanent lighting, temporary lighting is installed on a job site for a limited amount of time. These sockets connect to bulbs using leads that are linked to an electrical connection or generator to establish temporary illumination.

2. Q. What is adequate light?

A. Adequate lighting means levels of illumination suitable for tasks that the resident chooses proper lighting for the facility staff to be able to perform in.

3. Q. Why is lighting needed?

A. Why is lighting important? Whether in industrial or office settings, proper lighting makes all work tasks easier. Appropriate lighting can prevent workplace incidents by increasing the visibility of moving machinery and other safety hazards.

4. Q. What are OSHA requirements for lighting?

A. General construction areas require a minimum of 5 foot-candles of illumination. Plants and shops require at least 10 foot-candles. For other types of workplaces, the minimum illumination standards are as follows: First-aid stations and infirmaries: 30 f-c. Warehouses, walkways, and exits: 10 ft-c.

5. Q. How does OSHA define temporary?

A. Temporary wiring may be used during the period of experimental or developmental work for a particular research project that is being conducted and until it has served the purpose for which installed at which time it must be removed immediately.

6. Q. How do you calculate lighting requirements?

A. Multiply width of room x length of room x 1.5 = amount of total minimum wattage needed (assuming an eight-foot ceiling). Divide by 60 to get the number of 60-watt equivalent bulbs required. Then, add up the wattage in each bulb in each fixture to figure out how many light fixtures are needed.

7. Q. Does OSHA require covers for fluorescent lights?

A. Protective coverings for all light fixtures, whether they contain fluorescent bulbs or not. They must have protective plates. In areas where light fixtures could be damaged, they must be guarded by sufficiently strong barriers to prevent shattering.

8. Q. What is considered as good lighting?

A. Good lighting should be flexible enough to light a given area, while other areas remain in relative darkness. This has more to do with the number and placement of fixtures than wattage or number of bulbs.

10. Q. Who cleans up debris after a house fire?

A. As the homeowner, you're responsible for clearing debris from your property after a fire. The good news is coverage for debris removal is included in most homeowner’s insurance policies.

11. Q. What is considered debris?

A. Rubble, wreckage, ruins, litter, discarded garbage, scattered remains of something destroyed, discarded, or as in geology, large rock fragments left by a melting glacier, charred wood or twisted metal from a building fire, waterlogged drywall and wood trim from a flood etc.

12. Q. What is debris removal?

A. Debris removal is a service that removes various types of debris from a property. In the context of insurance, the cost of debris removal is often covered by property insurance policies. However, this cost is usually only covered if a covered peril causes the debris.

13. Q. Is debris removal the same as demolition?

A. Property owners should also check their property insurance policies for a debris removal provision, which covers the cost of removing debris and pollution that may result from demolition. In the demolition process, contractors are hired to demolish a structure.

Water Extraction

14. Q. How do you extract water?

A. 6 Steps for Proper Water Extraction & Home Restoration

1. Shut Down the source of water. The first step in proper water extraction is to find the water source and shut it down.

2. Protect against health issues

3. Remove all standing water

4. Dry out the area and all materials

5. Cleaning

6. Remove any lingering odors

15. Q. How does water extraction work?

A. Water extraction involves removing excess water from a home through the use of submersible pumps and industrial vacuums.

16. Q. Which method is used for water extraction?

A. These two water extraction methods are two of the more effective water removal methods. Vacuums – such as wet-dry vacuums can be used to eliminate excess water from areas such as floors, carpets, and surfaces that are porous. These vacuums work by putting down a cleaning solution and vacuuming up the moisture.

17. Q. What is the process of extraction?

A. Extraction is a process in which one or more components are separated selectively from a liquid or solid mixture, the feed (Phase 1), by means of a liquid immiscible solvent (Phase 2).

18. Q. How much does it cost to extract water from carpet?

A. Most carpet cleaning pros can extract water from a carpet, which ranges from $150 to $500 per room, and then clean it thoroughly, which generally costs less than $1 per square foot of water damage repair costs. Carpets; $150 to $500 per room (plus $1/sq. ft.)

19. Q. Is water damage covered by insurance?

A. Homeowners insurance may help cover damage caused by leaks caused from plumbing. If the leak is sudden and accidental, such as if a washing machine supply hose suddenly breaks or if you come across a burst pipe. However, homeowner’s insurance does not cover damage resulting from poor maintenance.


20. Q. What does it mean to winterize a house?

A. Winterization is the process of preparing a home for the harsh conditions of winter. It is usually performed in the fall before snow and excessive cold weather arrives. Winterization protects against damage due to bursting water pipes, and from heat loss due to openings in the building envelope.

21. Q. How do you winterize indoor faucets?

A. Indoor Plumbing Winterization Tips

1. Go with the flow. One of the best plumbing winterization tips is as easy as turning on the faucet.

2. Insulate pipes

3. Mind the temperature

4. Circulate warm air

5. Keep out the cold

6. Seal air leaks

22. Q. Will pipes freeze at 27 degrees?

A. There is no simple answer. Water freezes at 32 degrees Fahrenheit, but indoor pipes are somewhat protected from outdoor temperature extremes, even in unheated areas of the house like in the attic or garage. As a rule, temperatures outside must drop to at least twenty degrees or more to cause the pipes to freeze.

23. Q. How cold does it have to be in your house for the pipes to freeze?

A. 20 degrees Fahrenheit. Typically, your home's pipes begin to freeze when the outside temperature is at least 20 degrees Fahrenheit. Again, this depends on your geographical location. For example, areas that expect lower temperatures have water pipes that are better insulated in inner parts of your home, compared to other areas.

24. Q. How long does it take for pipes to freeze at 10 degrees?

A. All that said, the basic rule of thumb is to generally expect pipes to freeze within 3 – 6 hours of drawn-out subnormal temperatures.

25. Q. How much does it cost to winterize your home?

A. Some companies will winterize a vacant home for around $200. In most cases, you can do it yourself for less than $20. Others make it a point that it is the buyer's responsibility, hence you have to pay for the property to get de-winterized. Note: this runs $50 to $150 and the cost to re-winterize is $125 – $250.

26. Q. Is it safe to put antifreeze in pipes?

A. Automotive antifreeze uses ethylene glycol which is not okay for home sewage systems. Use antifreeze in wastewater or hot water heating systems only if it is not practical to maintain heat in the home, insulate the vulnerable pipes or keep water trickling through the system.

27. Q. What type of antifreeze is used to winterize a house?

A. Use only RV antifreeze to winterize your home. It is non-flammable and non-toxic. NEVER use automobile antifreeze as it is highly toxic, see text to the right. NEVER use plumbing antifreeze with copper lines, drains or motor parts.

28. Q. What is de-winterize?

A. De-winterizing your home means "charging" or making the plumbing system ready for everyday use. The first step in de-winterizing your plumbing system is to remove all the aerators from the faucets. This includes all kitchen sinks; vanity sinks and laundry sinks.

29. Q. When should you de-winterize? A. While you may not want to drain the system and crank up the engine until you are sure a late freeze is out of the question, the warm/cool days of early spring are the perfect time to get a jump on the rest of the spring commissioning processes.


Packing out your valuables

41. Q. Is it safe to wear clothes after a house fire?

A. However, you should avoid washing dry clean only clothing. Removing smoke odors from clothing is only one step to recovering from a fire. If your home is damaged after a fire, we can help. Our fire damage restoration contractors clean up all types of soot and smoke damage.

42. Q. What do you do with belongings after a fire?

A. Save undamaged possessions, any items that are not damaged or destroyed should be put in a safe place, even if it means putting them in storage. You will find that household items the fire did not burn up may be ruined by smoke, soot, or the water used to put out the flames.

43. Q. Can furniture be cleaned after a fire?

A. After a fire, it's safest to have upholstered furniture professionally cleaned or thrown out. It's recommended that individuals do not move, sit on, or wipe down smoke- or soot-damaged furniture. Keep in mind that some residues and odors may seep into soft, upholstered surfaces.

44. Q. How long after a fire can you move back in?

A. For small fires that cause little to no structural damage and instead cause smoke damage throughout, the restoration process can take anywhere from a few days to several weeks.

45. Q. How do you do inventory after a fire?

A. Start in one room. Place several smaller items on a flat surface, like a tabletop, and photograph them. Be sure you can see what's in the photos. Repeat the process until you've photographed everything in that room, then move on to the other rooms and do it all again until you've gone through everything.

  1. 46. Q. What should be included in home inventory? A. A home inventory list should include as much of the following information for the items as possible:
  2. • Description of the item
  3. • Make, model, or serial number if applicable
  4. • Appraisals or cost at the time of purchase
  5. • Where the item was purchased
  6. • Date of purchase
  7. Receipts or photos in an attachment, if relevant

47. Q. How do I make an inventory list?

A. How to Create an Inventory Sheet:

1. Open a new spreadsheet in Microsoft Excel, Google Sheets, Numbers, or another program. You can use whichever spreadsheet program you feel most comfortable with.

2. Name your headings

3. Enter items and their corresponding information

4. Save the sheet and update during inventory

48. Q. What is the best way to count inventory?

A. The best way to count inventory is with inventory management software that helps keep inventory audits short and sweet. Using an inventory app is faster than physically counting items and maintaining spreadsheets, and it's also more accurate.

49. Q. How often should inventory be done?

A. At least once per year a physical inventory count should be performed, but more frequent checks can be useful. By checking your stock periodically, you can be sure your inventory matches what is in your records. You'll also be able to identify any problems in your record keeping procedures.

50. Q. Can you sleep in a house after a fire?

A. Smoke is invasive. Even though it might seem to have dissipated, if you look carefully, you'll find signs of smoke damage across the home. For this reason, it isn't wise to stay over or sleep in a building after a fire without first cleaning up any lingering smoke particles.

Temporary Housing

51. Q. Who helps people after a fire?

  1. A. Red Cross. The first agency you need to know is the American Red Cross. This is a private company that is funded through charitable donations. Its mission is to provide assistance when disaster strikes – whether that is a large natural disaster like a tornado or earthquake or a single-family house fire.

52. Q. How long does Red Cross help for after a fire?

A. The American Red Cross Northern California Coastal Region provides 24-hour emergency assistance to people affected by fires, floods and other disasters.

53. Q. What does the Red Cross give you after a fire?

A. The Red Cross provides immediate disaster relief including temporary shelter, food, water, hygiene items and emotional support.

54. Q. How do you deal with insurance after a house fire?

  1. A. Here are some tips to follow when dealing with your homeowner’s insurance company regarding fire insurance claims.
  2. 1. Ask for an advance against your fire insurance claim you will have allocated funds through your personal property contents in getting your personal things together for your family advancements are usually $5,000- $10,000.00 based on the size of the family and policy.
  3. 2. Make a list of everything you've lost and don't throw anything away.
  4. 3. Hire a professional mitigation specialist who will work to get you back whole through your policy provisions.
  5. 4. File your claim right away and press the insurance company to act ASAP.

How do we disinfect surfaces

55. Q. What are some recommendations for employers during the COVID-19 pandemic?

A. Make a visual inspection of the employee for signs of illness, which could include flushed cheeks, sweating inappropriately for ambient temperature, or difficulty performing ordinary tasks.

Conduct temperature and symptom screening.

56. Q. How long does the coronavirus live on surfaces for?

A. Scientists found that SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, can be detected in aerosols for up to three hours and on plastic and stainless-steel surfaces for up to three days. The findings emphasize the importance of hand washing and disinfecting frequently touched surfaces to protect against infection.

57. Q. What is the difference between cleaning and disinfecting for COVID-19?

A. Cleaning physically removes germs, dirt, and impurities from surfaces or objects by using soap (or detergent) and water. This process does not necessarily kill germs, but by removing them, it lowers their numbers and the risk of spreading infection.

  1. 58. Q. What solutions can be used to disinfect surfaces during the COVID-19 pandemic? A. For disinfection, diluted household bleach solutions, alcohol solutions with at least 70% alcohol, and most common EPA-registered disinfectants should be effective.

59. Q. How long does it take alcohol disinfectants to kill COVID-19 on surfaces?

A. Solutions of 70% alcohol should be left on surfaces for thirty seconds (including cellphones) to ensure they will kill viruses. Pure (100%) alcohol evaporates too quickly for such use.

60. Q. Can I use disinfectant sprays for effective cleaning during the COVID-19 pandemic?

A. Spray disinfectants like Lysol disinfecting spray. It kills up to 99.9 percent of fungi, viruses, and bacteria. Simply spray the possibly infected areas like doorknobs and furniture and let the spray do its work, making for easy cleaning.

61. Q. How long does COVID-19 survive on clothes?

A. Research suggests that COVID-19 doesn’t survive for long on clothing, compared to hard surfaces, and exposing the virus to heat may shorten its life. A study was published and found that at room temperature, COVID-19 was detectable on fabric for up to two days, compared to seven days for plastic and metal.

62. Q. How to clean and disinfect your home where someone might be sick with COVID-19.

• Close off areas used by someone that has or may have COVID-19 and do not use these areas until after cleaning and disinfecting. • Wait at least 24 hours before cleaning and disinfecting. • If 24 hours is not feasible, wait as long as possible. • Provide staff with training about the safe and correct use and storage of cleaning and disinfection products, including storing products securely away from children and pets.

63. Q. Who is the IICRC?

A. The Institute of Inspection, Cleaning and Restoration Certification, more commonly known as the IICRC, is a certification and standard-setting non-profit organization for the inspection, cleaning, and restoration industries. The organization formulates health and safety related industry standards for built environment.



65. Q. What is AMRT certification?

The Applied Microbial Remediation Technician (AMRT) certification covers mold and sewage remediation techniques to individuals engaged in property management, property restoration, IEQ investigations, or other related professions.

Fire Damage Mitigation

66. Q. What is fire damage?

A. Fire damage refers to the physical damage to a property as a result of burning. This damage may either be directly caused by the flames or could occur due to smoke and other corrosive substances emitted by the fire. In terms of insurance, fire damage is one of the types of coverage offered in property insurance.

67. Q. What is a fire safety action plan?

A. Fire action plans require to be adapted to accommodate all known hazards or risks that are likely to impact on evacuation. These will include details of isolation procedures for processes and equipment as well as information displayed in Am-CatEms.com action plans.

68. Q. What are the four main steps of an emergency action plan?

A. Identify internal resources and capabilities. Contact your insurance company, understand your coverage, select a contractor that works with insurance carriers who are capable of handling emergencies. www.Am-CatEms.com

69. Q. What is mitigation after a fire?

A. Mitigation focuses on reducing damages and losses, after a disaster, such as a major fire. Effective mitigation must take place immediately after the disaster to keep financial and physical consequences at a minimum.

70. Q. How does fire restoration work?

A. Fire restoration may involve things like property board up, demolition and reconstruction on top of tasks such as debris, odor and soot removal, cleaning of contents and working to remove any disturbed hazards such as lead and asbestos.

71. Q. What are fire restoration services?

A. Fire damage restoration is the act of cleaning and restoring property as well as personal belongings that have sustained smoke or fire damage. The goal of fire damage restoration services is to salvage damaged items and restore your home so that it can once again be inhabited

72. Q. What does fire damage restoration include?

A. The fire damage restoration process includes mitigating damage, providing smoke damage cleanup and water restoration as quickly as possible after the damage first occurs. www.Am-CatEms.com

73. Q. How long does it take to rebuild a house after a fire?

A. Finding help is a phone call away (888) 832-4139 that’s your 1st step, but repairs can likely be done in 1-2 weeks. For small fires being neutralized by hand pumps, however, if the fire department has put a line of water to multiple lines of water, which is considered a large fire has occurred, then rebuilding a home can be a lengthy process. In some cases, reconstruction can be completed 2-3 months for your small to medium fires and 6-12 months for larger fires. In more severe instances, rebuilding a home will take months. www.Am-Cat.com

74. Q. Can you reuse a foundation after a fire?

A. Existing footings, slabs, and foundation systems in fire-destroyed buildings are typically compromised and are not permitted to be re-used. A fire can generate enough heat to damage and weaken the concrete and steel reinforcement bars in footings, slabs, and footing stem walls. www.Am-Cat.com

75. Q. What needs to be replaced after a house fire?

A. Here are five items that should be replaced, with help from your homeowner's insurance, after the items have been damaged by fire.

  • Insulation. If flames or sparks have made it into your home's insulation, get the insulation replaced now.
  • • Carpet
  • • Glass
  • Structural framing and other charred wood
  • Electrical wiring

76. Q. Can you fix a burned house?

A. Your building’s contractor might need to demo part of the house away or tear out all your old electrical and plumbing from being compromised or heavily burned. Repairing fire damage is not a job for the average homeowner, but you can get involved in picking out cosmetic fixtures and choosing the colors of paint or style of tile throughout the bathroom and kitchen and flooring. www.am-cat.com

77. Q. How much does it cost to clean smoke damage?

A. How much does smoke remediation cost? Typical costs for clean-up after a fire has occurred are between $3,000 and $26,000. Smoke remediation itself can cost between $200 to $1,000 depending on how much furniture, clothing and carpet requires deodorizing.

78. Q. What company cleans up after a fire?

A. Am-CatEms.com Franchise Professionals are specialized in fire and water damage restoration training and experience to quickly clean up and restore your home to pre-fire condition. They also can remove the pervasive smoke odor and deep-clean soot from upholstery and carpet. www.am-cat.com

Water Damage Mitigation

79. Q: What is Water damage restoration?

A: Water restoration is a specialized service that removes water from your home and restores it to a livable, pre-damaged condition. Restoring a home after a water damage emergency must happen quickly. Standing water and moisture create a perfect environment for bacteria and mold growth.

80. Q. What are mitigation services?

A. According to FEMA, mitigation is the process of reducing the loss of property due to the impact of a disaster. Water mitigation refers to the process of properly cleaning, sanitizing, drying, repairing, and restoring a property to its pre-water damage condition. The process of water damage cleanup is not uniform.

81. Q: How to mitigate water damage from your home.

A: If your home is subject to serious water damage, due to burst pipes, flooding, fire-extinguishing water hoses or some other unforeseen catastrophe, we must locate the cause of the water leak to turn off or terminate source of water leakage. Remove surface water then start drying methods before we can start to do a thorough clean of the compromised area.

Example of cost by rooms: Each room is expected to pay between $1,500 and $2,500. Am-Cat Ems charges an hourly rate for water damage restoration services, the charge is around $175 per hour. Special circumstances, such as debris removal, increase the average labor rate with surcharges. On average, water damage restoration costs $2,400, but prices can reach as high as $27,250.00+ and the average price is broken down to $4.75-$7.00 per square foot, depending on the type of water and amount of damage done to the space.

82. Q: What happens when water compromises my drywall?

A: More often than usual, water damaged drywall needs to be replaced, depending on the rating of the drywall installed / used. Wet drywall will lose its structural integrity if left alone for a long enough period of time and will develop mold spores between the insulation and the drywall.

83. Q: How long is the drying process for a water damaged home or office?

A: Unfortunately, there is no exact estimate on how long the drying process could take. But, in general, a water damaged home or office can dry out for around 5-7 days. In some cases, it would take as little as 2-3 days, and other times it takes several weeks to dry out a home or office.

84. Q: How is mold formed?

A: In dark shaded areas, excess water and moisture gets absorbed in wood, drywall, insulation, and wallpaper which can lead to warping, stains, bubbling, and deterioration. Hidden water leaks can also cause mold to grow and spread in areas behind walls and ceilings where it is not easily detected, through the research Am-Cat Ems found.

85. Q: Does American Catastrophe Emergency Services come out at night?

A: At American Catastrophe Emergency Services, we pride ourselves on expecting the unexpected. So, we are here for you 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, 365 days a year. If you have water damage in your home or business, do not hesitate to give us a call, any time day or night.

86. Q: How soon can American Catastrophe Emergency Services come out?

A: According to Integrity Insurance, 14,000 people in the US experience a water damage emergency at home or work each day, and 98% of basements in the US will suffer from some type of water damage during their lifetime. When you have water damage in your home or business, we know time is of the essence. We provide a quick response and strive to be there within 1-2 hours of your call.

87. Q: Does American Catastrophe Emergency Services work with my insurance company?

A: As a leading water restoration company, we are a preferred vendor with all major insurance companies in this area. Contact us today for a free consultation.

88. Q. What is Category 2 water damage?

A. The IICRC S500 defines Category 2 water damage incidents as water that “contains significant contamination and has the potential to cause discomfort or sickness if contacted or consumed by humans.” Examples can include dishwasher/washing machine discharge or overflow. Toilet bowl overflow with urine.

89. Q. What is Level 3 water damage?

Category 3 water damage, aka “black water” damage, is the most extreme kind of water damage and requires swift action to mitigate serious health risks. Black water includes sewage, rising flood waters, seawater, as well as river and ground water.

90. Q. What is a Category 1 water loss?

A Category 1 water loss is when the water originates from a sanitary water source and does not pose a substantial risk if ingested or inhaled. Some examples of a Category 1 water loss: Broken water supply lines. Sink or tub overflows with no contaminants.

91. Q: What can I do until American Catastrophe Emergency Services arrives?

A: If you're experiencing any kind of water damage, one of the first things you should do is move smaller items such as knick-knacks. We also recommend you put aluminum foil under wooden furniture like chair legs and entertainment centers. This will keep the stain from bleeding onto your carpet and help the wood from soaking up the water.

92. Q. What is OSHA standard for PPE use?

A. Protective equipment, including personal protective equipment for eyes, face, head, and extremities, protective clothing, respiratory devices, protective shields and barriers shall be provided, used, and maintained in a sanitary and reliable condition wherever it is necessary by reason of hazards of processes.

93. Q. What are the legal requirements for PPE?

A. Regulation for states: Every employer shall ensure that suitable personal protective equipment is provided to their employees who may be exposed to risk to their health or safety while at work except where and to the extent that such risk has been adequately controlled by other means which are equally or more effective.

94. Q. What PPE must an employer provide?

A. With few exceptions, OSHA requires employers to pay for personal protective equipment when it is used to comply with OSHA standards. These typically include hard hats, gloves, goggles, safety shoes, safety glasses, welding helmets goggles, face shields, chemical protective equipment and fall protection equipment.

Mold Removal Mitigation

95. Q. How do you seal off a mold contaminated room?

A. To seal off the room you are about to clean, use plastic sheets with duct tape to cover doorways, vents and any other openings. You also need to minimize dust as mold spores often stick to dust and are then transported around your home by the dust particles. Isolating the work area to prevent cross-contamination of clean, unaffected areas of the home is imperative.

96. Q. How is mold abatement done?

A. Mold professionals seal off the work area, often using plastic sheeting, so that mold spores do not become dispersed throughout the home. Mold professionals use expensive, professional equipment such as HEPA air scrubbers, HEPA vacuums, commercial-strength dehumidifiers, etc. Regular handymen won't have that equipment.

97. Q. Can you do mold remediation yourself?

A. Scrub the surface mold stains from walls and wood trim with a mixture of one-quart water and 1/2-cup bleach mold cleaner to kill the mold. Use a soft brush and work until signs of the mold disappear. After scrubbing the surfaces, allow the bleach solution to continue to penetrate the surfaces and dry.

While I do not recommend DIY mold remediation, I know that there are a lot of people out there doing it. I also know that there are a lot of people out there who do NOT properly contain the area. I get a lot of calls from people wanting to know “how badly” they contaminated the rest of the house because when they went to remove the moldy materials in their home but then found a larger issue than they expected.

98. Q. What kills mold spores in the air?

A. Place air purifiers throughout your home to kill mold in the air. The only way to directly kill mold spores in the air is to use an air purifier. For best results, place purifiers in each room of your house to ensure maximum efficiency in killing the spores.

99. Q. What type of cleanup is involved after a flood?

A. Throw away wet materials that can't be cleaned. Wash curtains, clothing, and bedding with hot soapy water. Bleach them whenever possible and then dry and iron them. Flush rugs and furniture with clean water, and shampoo and air-dry them.

100. Q. How do you clean up after a fire?

A. To remove soot and smoke from walls, furniture and floors, use a mild soap or detergent or mix together 4 to 6 tbsp tri-sodium phosphate and 1 cup household cleaner or chlorine bleach to every gallon of warm water. Wear rubber gloves. Be sure to rinse surfaces with clear warm water and dry thoroughly.

101. Q. What type of cleanup or recovery should they expect after a hurricane?

A. Clean surfaces that have touched floodwater with soap and warm, clean water; rinse; then sanitize using a solution of 1 cup bleach and 5 gallons of water. Sanitize clothing, tools, and equipment with soap and water after coming into contact with contaminated floodwater or chemicals.

102. Q. What company cleans up after a fire?

A. Am-Cat Ems Franchise Professionals are specialized in fire and water damage restoration training and experience to quickly clean up and restore your home to pre-fire condition. They also can remove the pervasive smoke odor and deep-clean soot from upholstery and carpet.

Apply Anti-Microbial: Spray and Wipe Down

103. Q Is it better to spray or wipe disinfectant?

A. According to the American Journal of Infection Control, disinfectant wipes produced much better results when compared to spray-based disinfectants. It has been demonstrated that wipes are more effective and better for gym equipment. Apr 6, 2018

104. Q Is antimicrobial spray safe?

A. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) “has found no evidence to suggest [antimicrobial coatings] offer any enhanced protection from the spread of bacteria and germs and that proper cleaning and handwashing are the best ways to prevent infection.” Jan 29, 2016

105. Q What is the difference between antimicrobial and antibacterial?

A. Antibacterial products prevent bacteria like E. coli and MRSA from forming, or it will destroy the germs that are already there. Antimicrobial products, on the other hand, prevent and destroy not only bacteria, but also fungi, parasites, algae, dust-mites, and certain viruses. Jul 14, 2021

106. Q What is the most effective antimicrobial?

A. Sterilizers are the strongest type of public health antimicrobial product. In addition to bacteria, algae, and fungi, they also control hard-to-kill spores.

107. Q What does disinfectant not do?

A. Disinfection does not necessarily kill all microorganisms, especially resistant bacterial spores; it is less effective than sterilization, which is an extreme physical or chemical process that kills all types of life.

108. Q How long do antimicrobials last on surfaces?

A. Some bacteria – including E. Coli and MRSA – can survive for several months on inanimate surfaces, while infectious yeasts can last for weeks. This only underlines the importance of continually disinfecting and cleaning surfaces that are frequently touched. (Read more about how long Covid-19 lasts on surfaces.)

109. Q. How many air scrubbers do I need?

A. As a rule you should achieve a minimum of 6 ACH. This means that an air scrubber must complete six air changes every hour, or one every 10 minutes. If you can increase the ACH, do so. You can see that you would need an air scrubber with 400 CFM to maintain 6 ACH in a 4,000 cubic foot space.

110. Q. Do air scrubbers kill mold?

A. The answer is yes. Air scrubbers remove a variety of pathogens and contaminants, including mold. They can also remove allergens like dust mites, pollen, and mold spores. Air scrubbers can remove 99% of these airborne particles.

111. Q. How long should I run an air scrubber?

A. The industry guideline recommends that an air scrubber be in the environment for 24 to 48 hours to thoroughly scrub the air. These types of air devices usually do between 4 to 6 air exchanges per hour which will effectively aid in the filtration and cleaning of the airspace.

112. Q. Are home air scrubbers safe?

A. The answer to this question is a definitive yes, as long as your house doesn't have underlying wiring issues that would prevent a modern appliance from being able to function properly.

113. Q. How much does an air scrubber cost?

A. An air scrubber with Am-Cat Ems generally costs around $1,300-$2,000 depending on the size of your home and HVAC system and or the setup fee in the placement of the mobile equipment.

114. Q. Do air scrubbers help with Covid?

A. When used properly, air cleaners and HVAC filters can help reduce airborne contaminants including viruses in a building or small space. By itself, air cleaning or filtration is not enough to protect people from COVID-19.

115. Q. Is it okay to sleep in a room with a dehumidifier?

A. Yes, it is perfectly safe to sleep in the same room as a dehumidifier. If you are particularly interested in a dehumidifier for the bedroom the noise level will be particularly important to you.

116. Q. What are the benefits of a dehumidifier?

A. A dehumidifier helps reduce musty odors that can accompany mold and mildew. Reducing the potential development of mold on furniture, curtains, bed sheets and clothing. Running a dehumidifier reduces dust. Dust can trigger allergies; and this device will help to reduce allergens such as dust mites, mold, and mildew.

117. Q. What are the pros and cons of a dehumidifier?

Pro: Helps with allergies

Pro: Increases comfort

Con: Noise and heat

Con: May increase energy bill

Con: Requires regular maintenance

118. Q. Do dehumidifiers kill mold?

A. So, to answer your question, dehumidifiers do NOT kill mold, but they do prevent it by reducing humidity. If you have a mold problem in your home, do not wait. Remove the mold and stop the moisture source (leak, condensation, high humidity, etc.) to prevent more damage and costly repairs.

119. Q. How much does a commercial grade dehumidifier cost?

A. Industrial/commercial dehumidifiers can start at $5,500 and their price can increase depending on their capacity and features. If your commercial establishment is not too large, then you can benefit from a whole-house dehumidifier model that can start at $2,500 for a 260-pint capacity.

120. Q. How many square feet can one-pint cover?

One pint of our paint covers about 50 square feet, or one dresser and two chairs. One quart can cover a bed, a dresser and four chairs. And one gallon is enough to paint the average sized kitchen.

121. Q. What is a hydroxyl generator used for?

A. What does a hydroxyl generator do? As mentioned in the introduction, hydroxyl generators are used to eliminate odors and break down volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in indoor environments.

122. Q. Do hydroxyl generators kill mold?

A. A hydroxyl generator can kill airborne mold spores and removes mold odors but has a limited effect on surface mold. This is because hydroxyl generators do not penetrate materials or kill mold that has already become established on surfaces due to hydroxyls not lasting long enough to reach them.

123. Q. Are hydroxyl air purifiers safe?

A. Hydroxyl generators work in a way that is most similar to ozone in the sense that they produce oxidizing gasses that break apart odor molecules. The two primary differences, however, are that hydroxyls are scientifically confirmed to be far more reactive than ozone, and they are safe to use with sensitive materials.

124. Q. Does hydroxyl clean the air?

A. The hydroxyl radical is a very reactive and short-lived molecule that contains one hydrogen atom and one oxygen atom. These go on to react with hydrocarbons or carbon monoxide molecules and break them up — scrubbing the atmosphere clean.

125. Q. How much is a Hydroxyl?

A. Price: Hydroxyl generator prices run the full gamut from a low of $500 to a high of $4,500.

126. Q. Is Hydroxyl an ozone?

A. Hydroxyls are the second strongest oxidant in the world behind atomic fluorine. They are one million times more reactive than ozone, which means they break down a much broader range of odors and pathogens compared to ozone.

127. Q. What is a ULV fogger?

A. ULV Fogging works by compressing pesticides or disinfectants through a specially designed nozzle, producing a fine cold mist or aerosol. Electric portable versions are particularly ideal for indoor applications as they don't produce exhaust gases and are less noisy.

128. Q. What chemicals can be used in a ULV fogger?

A. Fog master foggers are capable of atomizing light liquids -- both water- and oil-based -- including pesticides, deodorants, disinfectants and, of course, water. Heavier liquids can also be fogged, providing their viscosity and surface tension is not too great.

129. Q. Is electrostatic sprayer the same as a fogger?

A. What is the difference between electrostatic sprayers and foggers? Electrostatic sprayers have an electrode that introduces a positive electric charge to the solution. Foggers or misters create a dry fog or wet mist that kills pathogens in the air and on any surface it contacts.

130. Q. What is an electrostatic sprayer used for?

A. Electrostatic sprayers are the newest tool in the cleaning industry, used to disinfect surfaces with electrically charged particles for even, complete disinfecting coverage.

Why is an electrostatic sprayer better?

131. Q. Benefits of Electrostatic Spraying A. Less toxic chemicals can be used: The increased effectiveness allows more choices for disinfection and sanitization. Better for the environment: By using safer chemicals and reducing waste, the total environmental load is substantially lightened.

132. Q. What can you spray with an electrostatic sprayer?

A. Cleaners, sanitizers, deodorizers, and disinfectants can all be used with electrostatic sprayers.

133. Q. Can you paint over encapsulation paint?

A. Led paint encapsulation is more than painting over lead paint. Painting over lead paint, also known as encapsulation, is an effective remediation technique. Can you just paint over the lead paint? Yes, but not with just any oil or water-based paint.

134. Q. Is encapsulating lead paint safe?

A. Can you paint over lead paint safely? You can absolutely paint over lead-based paint in your home, but it's important to follow specific steps, guidelines, and safety protocols. Painting over lead paint is known as “encapsulation,” and it's frequently used as an effective remediation technique.

135. Q. How can you tell if its lead paint?

A. Walls can also be tested for surface lead using a paint testing kit available at your local hardware store. For the test, you rub a solution on the wall. If the solution turns pink, you have led.

136. Q. Will kilz encapsulate lead paint?

A. Primer recommendations: KILZ MAX®, KILZ® ORIGINAL, KILZ COMPLETE® or KILZ ODORLESS® primers. WARNING If you scrape, sand, or remove old paint, you may release lead dust. Encapsulants cover lead paint so that the paint cannot produce dangerous dust, and humans cannot come into contact with it.

137. Q. Does primer seal lead paint?

If you own a home built before 1978, the chances are good that it contains lead-based paint. While there are several ways to deal with this health hazard, sealing the painted surface with acrylic primer is not one of them.

138. Q. How to avoid breathing in mold or mold spores

A. To limit your exposure to airborne mold spores, you may want to wear an N-95 respirator.

139. Q. What are the three things that mold needs in order to grow?

A. Mold requires water, food, and oxygen to grow. It also requires an environment with a temperature it can survive. While mold cannot spread without these conditions, its spores may survive in a dormant state until conditions are suitable.

140. Q. Why is mold a problem?

A. Molds have the potential to cause health problems. Molds produce allergens (substances that can cause allergic reactions), irritants, and in some cases, potentially toxic substances (mycotoxins). Inhaling or touching mold or mold spores may cause allergic reactions in sensitive individuals.

141. Q. How do you check for mold?

A. Most mold is unmistakable, but sometimes small or largely hidden growths just make a surface look dirty. A quick test for mold can be done when you dip a swab in diluted bleach (1-part bleach, 16 parts water) and dab it on the wall. If the spot quickly lightens (or keeps coming back after cleaning), assume it is mold.

142. Q. How long does mold stay in the air?

A. Mold spores stay airborne indefinitely, but you should know that if a damp spot is unattended to for 24 to 48 hours, then it's likely that the mold spores in the air will congregate on that one spot, forming more mold.

143. Q. How long does it take to get sick from mold exposure?

A. These spores proliferate quickly and can take hold in places with poor ventilation and high humidity in less than 24 hours. The problem starts when you inhale these spores. They produce extremely toxic substances known as mycotoxins that can produce an immune response in some individuals.

144. Q. What does mold do to the body?

A. Some people are sensitive to molds. For these people, exposure to molds can lead to symptoms such as stuffy nose, wheezing, and red or itchy eyes, or skin. Some people, such as those with allergies to molds or with asthma, may have more intense reactions.

145. Q. Does sunlight kill mold?

A. Darkness. Ultraviolet (UV) light from the sun kills most mold and spores, which is why you don't see it growing outside in the open. That also means when you're looking for mold, you'll need to check dark nooks and crannies where it might be hiding.

146. Q. Will a dehumidifier kill mold?

A. So, to answer your question, dehumidifiers do NOT kill mold, but they do prevent it by reducing humidity. If you have a mold problem in your home, don't wait. Remove the mold and stop the moisture source (leak, condensation, high humidity, etc.) to prevent more damage and costly repairs.

147. Q. Is it safe to live in a house with mold?

A. All indoor environments have some mold spores in them, but this does not affect most people. However, people with a compromised immune system may have a higher risk of illness, and especially lung problems, if there are mold spores and mold in the environment. Others may experience allergic reactions.

  1. 148. Q. How expensive is mold removal? A. It costs $500 to $4,000 to remove mold from crawlspaces only. $2,000 to $6,000 to remove mold from ducts, crawl spaces, walls, and attics. $10,000 to $30,000 (or more) to repair widespread structural damage.

149. Q. Will my insurance company cover the cost for mold remediation?

A. First you must look in your policy to determine if you have any mold coverage at all, it is fairly common in certain areas of Florida or Texas but not so much in others. Even if you do have mold coverage, you must look at the source of the issue. If it’s from a water damage like a pipe leak in the kitchen, just about everyone should have coverage for water damage, the mold treatment may not be covered; it depends on how it is presented to the insurance company. If the mold problem stems from negligence ex. like failure to clean a small shower that gets humid to the point the ceiling needs to come out, this will not be covered by insurance.

In the event you are looking to get damage covered by insurance, the best course of action is to have a restoration contractor look at your policy and speak to the insurance company. These are people experienced with insurance claims and know what the providers are looking to see. www.diversifymanagement.com

Air Duct Cleaning

150. Q. Why is it important to clean air vents?

A. In addition to dust, air ducts frequently contain harmful contaminants and micro-organisms. These include pet dander, bacteria, pollen, mildew, mold spores, and similar toxins. A periodic air duct cleaning promotes healthier living. Otherwise, the dirty air in your home just keeps re-circulating over and over.

151. Q. How often should air ducts and vents be cleaned?

A. About every 3 to 5 years, just like any other HVAC system, air ducts require regular maintenance to ensure maximum efficiency. Am-CatEms.com has a general rule of thumb, the National Air Duct Cleaners Association (NADCA) recommends air duct cleaning every 3 to 5 years.

152. Q. Do duct cleaners need access to vents?

A. The answer is no! Am-CatEms.com closes-up all the vents to ensure that any and all contaminants inside the ducts are completely removed. This step prevents dust, dirt, and other debris from escaping into your home – and contaminating the air you breathe.

153. Q. What happens if you don't clean your air ducts?

A. Over time, without proper air duct cleaning and maintenance, the moisture will start to grow mold and mildew. If you have moldy air ducts, that mold is going to be blown all through your home or business. Not only is this going to create a musty, unpleasant smell, but eventually people will start to get sick.

154. Q. Can mold grow in air vents?

A. Mold grows on air vents because moisture forms on the metal vents when the HVAC is on, and dust accumulates on the surface — which is a food source. Through Am-catEms.com research cleaning the visible mold in vents is strongly recommended because the mold may release spores into the air, possibly causing harmful health issues.

155. Q. Does cleaning air ducts make a difference?

A. Duct cleaning has never been shown to actually prevent health problems. Neither do studies conclusively demonstrate that particle (e.g., dust) levels in homes increase because of dirty air ducts. This is because much of the dirt in air ducts adheres to duct surfaces and does not necessarily enter the living space.

156. Q. How can you tell if you have mold in your air ducts?

A. Nausea, fatigue, dizziness and irritation of the nose and eyes are all telltale signs that you have mold in your air ducts. In warmer and more humid climates like Trussville's, it's quite easy for mold to grow, so you should be aware of these signs Am-catEms.com

157. Q. How much does it cost to remove mold from air ducts?

A. Remediation costs vary depending on how much and where mold exists. Figures range $500 to $4,000 to remove mold from crawlspaces only. $2,000 to $6,000 to remove mold from ducts, crawl spaces, walls, and attic spaces. Am-CatEms.com


Moisture Readings

158. Q. What is an acceptable moisture reading?

A. You should be aware that a moisture reading of 0-15% is quite normal and raises no cause for concern. However, moisture readings more than 15% indicate the need for further inspection. Levels between 25-30% indicate that there may be water ingress, meaning that remedial work could be required.

159. Q. What percentage of dampness is acceptable?

A. Any moisture content above 16% reading is considered damp. Most meters are fairly accurate now, even the cheaper ones.

160. Q. How much does wood shrink or expand?

A. While the amount of shrinkage or expansion varies from species to species, wood will generally shrink or expand about 1% across the grain when its moisture content changes by 4%. However, even with large moisture changes, wood barely shrinks or expands at all along the grain.

161. Q. What level of moisture is acceptable?

A. A range of 5 to 12 percent is considered optimal. A reading of up to 16 percent is generally considered moderate moisture and acceptable. Any reading over 16 percent is an indication of saturation with the need to replace the drywall and take preventative measures against future moisture buildup. www.Am-Cat.com

162. Q. What do the readings on a moisture meter mean?

A. Moisture meters include visual LED indicators related to the percent reading on the scale for dry, moderate and saturated or wet readings. Additionally, some meters also offer a third scale for readings of gypsum. These scale readings can range from 0.2 to 50% moisture content.

163. Q. What is the acceptable amount of moisture content in drywall?

A. Between 5 and 12%, While relative humidity can have some effect on moisture levels, drywall is considered to have an appropriate level of moisture if it has a moisture content of between 5 and 12%.

164. Q. What is a bad moisture reading?

A. In general, any reading between 6% and 10% is considered normal here. Now if you are testing exterior wood that has direct contact with the surrounding humidity, you can tolerate values that are up to 20%. Things start to get worrying when the meter indicates higher values than 20%.

165. Q. What is the normal moisture level in a house?

A. Every home is different, but a level between 30 and 40 percent humidity is typically ideal for keeping your home warm and comfortable in the winter, without leaving condensation on the windows. In the summer, that level can be higher, between 50 and 60 percent.

166. Q. What causes moisture under hardwood floors?

A. Wood floors experience cupping when moisture becomes trapped underneath the wood. This sometimes happens when there's been a flood that has seeped into the floor. If wood floors are placed directly on concrete with no vapor barrier installed underneath, humidity will pass through the porous concrete.

167. Q. How do I reduce moisture in my subfloor?

A. To guard against moisture problems in the subfloor, you can suggest that they place a dehumidifier in the room during the humid summer months if there is a risk of excessive moisture, especially if the floor was installed in a below-grade environment. Of course, this will not solve a serious moisture problem.

168. Q. What is an acceptable moisture reading in hardwood floors?

A. Ensuring wood flooring is at its ideal moisture content if the temperature of the building is between 75- and 85-degrees Fahrenheit, the equilibrium moisture content of your wood should be between 7% and 8%. However, in some coastal areas, the average RH is in the 58% to 63% range.

169. Q. Do moisture meters really work?

A. A high-quality moisture meter used on the right material can be accurate to within less than 0.1% of the material's moisture content by weight. However, a low-end moisture meter can be wildly inaccurate.

170. Q. What is considered a high moisture reading in a crawl space?

A. 12% – 16% – Readings in this range are common to lumber during construction, air dried lumber and “healthy” residential substructures (beneath the first floor in crawl spaces). These are typical readings for exterior wood. 16% – 20% – Readings in this range indicate a possible elevated level of wood moisture.

171. Q. What moisture index does mold need to grow?

A. High humidity, many species of mold can grow and thrive on humidity alone if the humidity level stays high for a sufficient period of time. Humidity levels typically need to be at 55% or higher before mold begins to grow.


Garage Builds / Installations

172. Q. Is adding a garage worth it?

A. In practically any case, building a garage can and will increase the resale value of your home. According to Pocket Sense, the average attached garage will cost around $27,000 to build. Most homeowners see about an 81% return on their investment or an increase in the resale value of $21,000.

173. Q. How much does garage installation cost?

A. A garage costs $10,000.00 -$28,500.00 on average to build and $5,000.00- $16,000 to convert or renovate. Driveway installation averages almost $4,500. Garage doors average $1,100 - $1,500.

174. Q. How much does it cost to have a garage door motor installed?

A. Any type of garage door can be motorized, the installation of a garage door motor may cost between $200 and $650.

175. Q. How long do garage door motors last?

A. Most garage door openers last an average of around 10 to 15 years. Whether your specific garage door opener lifespan is longer or shorter than this will depend on several factors, including frequency of use and regular garage door maintenance.

176. Q. How much does it cost to build a 24x24 garage?

A. A 24×24 garage can cost between $20,000 and $53,000 depending on materials and labor costs. Generally, a garage can be constructed at a rate of $50 per square foot, but contractors vary in their rates. A 24×24 garage is ideal for 2-3 cars, and you may need to spend up to $4,000 on a new garage door.

177. Q. Can I replace a garage door opener unit without changing the rails?

A. Generally, no, you cannot reuse the rail, they are not all exactly the same dimensions. There is no one standard size of profile, even within the same manufacturer, they change over the years.

178. Q. How many cars fit in a 30x40 garage?

A. On that basis I would expect that with 1,200 square feet of space, you could be looking at between four and six cars more or less, depending upon the configuration of the space and the access.

179. Q. How many yards of concrete do I need for a 30x40 slab?

A. 30 ft x 40 ft x 6" Concrete Summary, 2.222 cu. yds.

180. Q. How much would it cost to pour a 30x40 concrete slab?

A. The average cost to pour a 30x40 concrete slab that is 6” thick with metal rebar reinforcements is between $8,196 and $12,384. This cost is based on a general-purpose use such as a garage, whereas a foundation for a structure may cost more.

181. Q. Is asphalt cheaper than concrete?

A. The cost of an asphalt driveway is typically cheaper than concrete, costing $2.00 – $4.00 per square foot. Asphalt prices tend to fluctuate with fluctuations in crude oil prices. In contrast, a concrete driveway costs between $4.00 – $6.00 per square foot for a standard installation.

Project consulting

182. Q. What is a general contractor for construction?

A. Typically, the General Contractor is the individual or company that manages all aspects of the day-to-day activities at the jobsite. They are in charge of actually building the building. General Contractors have their own employees who typically fill the roles of project manager and Construction Superintendent.

183. Q. Can a general contractor be a project manager?

A. So, while both carry a responsibility to coordinate between different entities underneath them, general contractors and project managers operate at different levels in the construction management process. In some construction projects, general contractors serve in a project management role.

184. Q. How much are Construction Management Fees A. Hiring a construction manager costs an average of $24,819, or between $3,142 and $49,707. Their fee makes up 5% to 15% of the project total, though this percentage decreases for larger projects.

185. Q. How much does a project manager charge for a project?

A. For projects from $0 – $500,000, the project management fee totals 5%. So, for a $100,000 project, you would expect to pay the project manager $5,000. As the cost of the project goes up, the percentage-based fee decreases.

186. Q. What is the difference between a general contractor and a project manager?

A. A project manager typically manages the Construction Manager and/or the General Contractor on behalf of the client. General Contractors are chosen through a bidding process by the client and are involved during construction and in the daily direction and operation of projects.

187. Q. Is the contractor the project manager?

A. The construction project manager chooses the contractor of the project as soon as the design is completed. Contractors should be able to deal with deadlines, budget issues, public safety, decision making, quality management, working drawings, human resources, and mathematics.

188. Q. What does a general contractor project manager do?

A. Construction project managers oversee all phases of the building process, making sure the project is completed on time and within scope and budget. This role works closely with architects and engineers to develop plans, establish timelines, and calculate labor and material costs.

189. Q. How Much Do Project Manager Jobs Pay per Hour?

Annual Salary

Hourly Wage


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Technical Writing

193. Q. Who uses Xactimate?

A. Adjusters and insurance companies all use Xactimate to help process property claims. Xactimate can help an adjuster to document property damage.

194. Q. Does Xactimate certification expire?

Those who successfully complete the program receive Xactimate Certified Trainer status, become certified by Xactware, and are given access to valuable training resources. At the end of the two-year period, the certification status will expire and must be renewed.

195. Q. Do all insurance companies use Xactimate?

A. All major insurance companies use Xactimate for their estimating and billing systems to ensure pricing uniformity between themselves and contractors. Xactimate works by using items such as labor, material, and measurements to come up with the prices.

196. Q. What companies use Xactimate?

A. Numerous insurance companies, including but not limited to, Liberty Mutual, Travelers Insurance, and the ACE Group. Xactware Solutions provides computer software solutions for professionals involved in estimating all phases of building and repair. In 1986, Xactware opened for business with Xactimate, its flagship estimating system. Xactimate helped contractors and insurance adjusters estimate repairs much faster and more accurately than they ever could before. Since then, Xactimate has evolved into a high-powered package complete with a patented plan-sketching program, and Xactware has become much more than just Xactimate. Today twenty-two of the top twenty-five property insurance companies in the U.S. and ten of the top ten Canadian insurers use Xactware property insurance claims tools. Xactware features software solutions for every phase of a building's life: from remodeling to totally replacing a building, from determining the cost of rebuilding a structure to preserving and repairing a home.

197. Q. Is Xactimate hard to use?

A. I've instructed on many important aspects of adjusting, but – by far – Xactimate is the largest and most difficult technical hurdle for new claims adjusters. Xactimate proficiency is key to success as an insurance adjuster.

198. Q. How do I get Xactimate certified?

A. Xactware Trainer Certification Process

1. Register for the trainer certification program by calling our training department at 1-800-424-9228.

2. Sign and return Xactware's Training Services Agreement and the Certified Trainer Registration Form.

3. Pass the Xactimate Level 3 Certification Exam.

199. Q. What is the difference between Xactimate and XactAnalysis?

A. XactAnalysis SP is a secure, online management tool for assignment receivers such as insurance repair contractors, cleaning specialists, and independent adjusters. Xactimate is used by property adjusters, contractors, and insurers.

200. Q. What other programs are like Xactimate?

A. Top Alternatives to Xactimate

  • • Premier Construction Software
  • • Jonas Enterprise Service & Construction Software
  • • MarketSharp
  • • improveit 360
  • • Encircle for Restoration
  • • DataForma
  • EZ Property Preservation Software
  • • House Flipping Spreadsheet